Grammar, 2nd edition
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There are activities at each step, using authentic written and spoken data. Using 'real' texts avoids the faking of evidence to be found in some traditional grammar books, and interesting problems of analysis that arise in such texts are a source of useful discussion. The book has been thoroughly revised and expanded for this second edition, which contains additional chapters and material. A new opening chapter discusses the concept of 'grammatically correct English' and the differences between descriptive, prescriptive and proscriptive approaches to the writing of grammar books.
The book is a systematic description of Standard English, and examples of contemporary spoken dialectal grammar are introduced and analysed to illustrate the differences between standard and nonstandard usage. Categories: Linguistics , Grammar. Show More. Show Less. Chomskyan adj. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of the theories of the American linguist Noam Chomsky b.
Over time he continued to develop his theories and published extensively on phonology his best-known contribution being The Sound Pattern of English in , with M. Halle , on language and the human mind, and also, critically, on American. See also generalized phrase structure grammar; generative; generative grammar 2 ; government-binding theory; grammar; head-driven phrase structure grammar; phrase structure grammar; principles and parameters theory; standard theory; transformational grammar.
See open; closed 1 ; word class.
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The term is more useful with reference to a language such as Chinese, which has a system for marking. They do not have comparatives or superlatives. Compare with qualitative adjective. See also adverbial clause; complement clause; free relative clause; nominal clause; relative clause; that-clause; wh-clause. Each of the clause types has a typical use. When a particular clause type is used in a non-typical way e.
Considerable confusion is caused when statement, question, exclamation, and directive are used as both syntactic and semantic categories, which is why some grammarians are careful to use declarative,. Compare minor sentence. See also mood. Another type of structure, sometimes included under cleft, is more carefully distinguished as the pseudo-cleft construction also called wh-cleft.
The focus comes at the very end. What they like is a long lunch. Unlike the cleft sentence, the pseudo-cleft can have a verb phrase in the focus position, e. What Bob does on Sundays is to play golf. In a reverse pseudo-cleft construction the order of the clauses is inverted: A long lunch is what they like. A term applied in various areas of grammar where there are no clear-cut contrasts. See also gradience. A form pronounced with very little emphasis, usually shortened, and typically phonologically attached to a host word.
But, on the whole, closed classes do not allow newcomers, even though sometimes it may be desirable.
For example, it would be useful for English to possess a singular unisex. However, none of the many words suggested has become part of ordinary usage.
Contrast minor and major word class See major. Of a conditional clause or sentence: See condition; conditional.
Code can also mean any of two or more distinct languages in a situation where more than one is available to a speaker. The term is particularly favoured by those wishing to avoid the possibly pejorative overtones of the word dialect. A sociological theory put forward in the early s contrasted an elaborated code and a restricted code. The two codes were said to characterize middle-class and working-class speech.
The theory aroused both interest and argument. See nice properties. Latin mater, German Mutter, and English mother are cognate words or cognates. French, Italian, and Spanish are cognate languages: they are all derived from Latin. The analysis of different types of meaning is far from simple, and different semanticists make different distinctions. Compare denotative; ideational. See also communicative meaning; conative; connotation; descriptive; emotive; illocutionary meaning; interpersonal meaning; referential meaning. Cognitive Grammar A term coined by R. Coherence often depends on shared knowledge, implication, or inference.
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But if B had replied with a rather different statement, e. In the following dialogue there grammatically substitutes for at the meeting, and the pronoun it refers to the meeting. How did it go? HASAN Cohesion occurs where the interpretation of some element in the discourse is dependent on that of another. The one presupposes the other, in the sense that it cannot be effectively decoded except by recourse to it.
When this happens, a relation of cohesion is set up, and the two elements, the presupposing and the presupposed, are thereby at least potentially integrated into a text. See also cohesive. There are some exceptions. Thus an expletive can be inserted into some words, e. Compare tmesis. Compare anaphora; cataphora.
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Examples include army, audience, committee, family, herd, majority, parliament, team. The audience, which was a large one, was in its place by 7 p. The audience, who were all waving their arms above their heads, were clearly enjoying themselves. Notice that even when followed by a plural verb, such nouns still take a singular determinative; e.
This family are all accomplished musicians. The use of a plural verb with a grammatically singular noun of this type is more common in British English than in American English. See aggregate; group noun; plurale tantum. The term was introduced by the British linguist J. The term is far less general than the contrasting term collocation. Compare construction; co-occurrence; pattern. See also chain; syntagmatic.
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See also neo-firthian. A word that collocates with another. But many are much more restricted, and can occur only with one other word or with a limited set of other.
Here we can say that adherence collocates with to, and account collocates with for, and that adherence and to, and account and for are collocates. The technical sense in linguistics was introduced by the British linguist J. Firth, although the word had been loosely applied in linguistic contexts previously. This is a collocational restriction. Compare also such collocations as take advantage of. Special cases of collocation e. Compare semantic restriction. Compare informal. In ordinary everyday language, especially between speakers who know each other well, a casual style of speech is both frequent and appropriate.
Are you doing anything tomorrow evening? Compare register. At word level some usage restricts the term to a sequence that functions virtually as a single word e. In other usage the terms are virtually interchangeable. Compare compound; construction. Henry and Margaret met is an example of combinatory coordination, since the only possible interpretation is that they met each other. In I went there with my cousin, with my cousin has a comitative sense.
Compare topic. See also modal adjunct. A baby cannot feed itself.
See also gender; feminine; masculine. Compare dual gender. Of or pertaining to communication. Compare comment; given; information structure; new; rheme; theme; topic. See also attitudinal; conative; connotation; denotative; descriptive; expressive; interpersonal; propositional meaning; referential meaning; speech act.