Histories of Anthropology Annual, Volume 2 (Histories of Anthropology Annual)

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I also study tourism and travel in Puerto Rico and Cuba, nineteenth century to the present, and representations in art, photography, material culture, literature, advertising, etc. In approach I emphasize methods and theories for interpreting material and visual culture and documentary evidence, including textual and semiotic approaches and quantitative methods, along with ways to integrate such research with other streams of evidence.

I have produced photographic and poster exhibits, websites and videos as well as publications, and have taught a wide range of courses in all of the traditional subfields of the discipline. I also am actively engaged in research on the history and development of the Americanist tradition in anthropology and archaeology, with foci including the work of Frank Speck and his students and the University of Chicago and University of Wisconsin departments.

My interest in other disciplinary traditions of the world is reflected in the philosophy and contents of Histories of Anthropology Annual, which I co-founded and co-edit. Overview My first research focus has long been on Native North America and the historical relations between Native and European cultures, past and present. Keywords historical anthropology and history of anthropology material and visual culture museum studies tourism warfare religion Native North America, Puerto Rico, Cuba. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Volumes published ; volumes 8 and 9 in press, volume 10 in preparation edited with Regna Darnell Celebrating a Century of the American Anthropological Association: Presidential Portraits. Athens: University of Georgia Press. Selected Articles Humanistic Anthropology.

New York: Oxford University Press. Birmingham: University of Alabama Press. Historicizing Canadian Anthropology never makes matters quite so clear in its pages, let alone opening the book with these facts. Imagine having to worry about an absent definition being too essentialist. What students of anthropology in Canada ought to be taught and which usually they are not , is the history of anthropology and of anthropological theory in Canada. It was institutionalized independently, and somewhat marginally, and in most universities where it existed a handful up the s , it was often housed in multi-disciplinary social science departments.

There are numerous important lessons to be learned from this history. The history is one that saw university-based anthropology emerging first in Canada, becoming increasingly independent intellectually, and was then prematurely aborted as it was submerged by incoming American and American-trained academics, and was never really resumed.

The heroes of this Canadian story are two individuals who were originally migrants themselves: Sir Daniel Wilson , from Scotland, who occupied a commanding role at the University of Toronto, and Horatio Hale , originally from the United States, who settled in Clinton, Ontario. Both Wilson, then Hale soon after, pioneered an intellectual tradition that was a precursor to developments that would come later in the US, in part because Franz Boas, who worked first in Canada under Hale, apparently borrowed those ideas and is accused of failing to credit his mentor Nock, , p.

Some of the key theoretical developments given shape by Wilson and then Hale include: an anti-racist and a non-linear theory of cultural evolution; cultural relativism; a multi-field approach linguistics, archaeology ; and, salvage ethnography. If we were to summarize their innovations, it would look something like this:. In terms of the history of cultural imperialism and its academic component , the Canadian case offers some unusual lessons. While memory of early Canadian anthropology has generally been erased, and replaced by anthropology imported primarily from the US and Britain, there was no clear attempt to impose foreign anthropology on Canadian universities.

The history of anthropology in Canada is more one of imitation and importation , than imposition—and I am resisting the temptation to compare this to the cargo cult phenomenon. What we can safely say is that thanks to an aborted Canadian tradition, the door was opened to US and British anthropology, and these two centres of power have exercised considerable influence. What follows are just some notes on the careers of Daniel Wilson and Horatio Hale that extend some of the points listed above.

Ankita Mishra (AIR 105, CSE 2017) @ ForumIAS Annual Community Meet ✨

Daniel Wilson took up a position in Toronto, as Professor of History and English Literature at what was then called University College, Toronto, in where he worked until In , he offered a regular course of instruction in history and ethnology in the third year of the program in History and English Literature see Van Esterik, , p.

Wilson published a total of four books and 45 articles devoted to archaeology, ethnology, and physical anthropology Trigger, a, p. Half way through his life he was recognized as one of the leading prehistorians in Europe Trigger, a, p. Trigger, a, p. Prehistoric Man dealt with all the major fields subsequently recognized as part of anthropology—ethnology, prehistory, physical anthropology, and linguistics.

Toronto—click on the image to enlarge. Wilson maintained irregular, distant, and sometimes strained relationships with his counterparts in the US and Europe. Those who have researched his career, credit his work as having been developed in relative isolation, and certainly in greater isolation than would now be possible, given the absence of air travel and telecommunications. When it came to his US colleagues, Daniel Wilson apparently liked their libraries more than their intellects. It was only through books and the rare visit that Wilson could be kept informed of intellectual developments in Britain.

Wilson also did not do any systematic ethnographic research.

Wilson himself was aware of his evolution, from a young scholar in Scotland, to an aged one in Canada, as if the Atlantic was a line of separation not just in space but in between different periods of his personal development. In he wrote of the immensity of the Canadian experience and how it impressed him:. Man is seen subject to influences similar to those which have affected him in all great migrations and collisions of diverse races. Wilson, , p. In his criticisms of scientific racism and how native peoples had been depicted by US ethnologists, Wilson presented a view that is a basic form of cultural relativism, before this became acceptable in the US.

A similar difficulty has hitherto stood in the way of any definite classification of the emotional, moral, and intellectual characters of races. Wilson rejected the notion that racial inter-breeding was harmful, and pointed to the lack of evidence to support such a position, and yet plenty of evidence to contradict it Trigger, a, p. What also stands out about Wilson is that, well before it became instituted in the US as the four-field approach to anthropology, his research interests spanned what we now refer to as archaeology, biology, language, and culture.

I also want to mention another figure at the University of Toronto, A. Chamberlain then did a study of the Mississaga nation for his MA in During this Toronto period he gave a number of presentations before the Canadian Institute of Toronto on the origin of the Indian and Eskimo.

After Wilson died in , the University of Toronto struggled to find an adequate successor. In the first chair in anthropology at a Canadian university was created at St. That same year the Senate passed a resolution in favour of creating a Department of Anthropology. But between and , no courses in ethnology or anthropology were offered. In fact, the next set of courses in anthropology offered at the University of Toronto first reappears in the calendar for , which reflected the hiring of Thomas McIlwraith, who was trained at Cambridge under A.

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Haddon and W. Rivers, and he used their texts in his courses in Toronto Barker, , p. What does stand out as different, even in these later years at the University of Toronto—is the degree to which anthropology communicated with the broader public outside the university, and with multiple disciplines within the university. Within U of T, anthropology maintained an outward orientation, as anthropology courses were also offered as a service to various social science departments at U of T, and to the Faculty of Medicine Van Esterik, , p.

He died in Clinton, Ontario, on December 28, , having immigrated to Canada in shortly after his marriage to a Canadian, Margaret Pugh Nock, , p.

Histories of Anthropology Annual

Educated at Harvard, he became a philologist and ethnologist assigned to the Wilkes Pacific Expedition of —, subsequently publishing a major contribution on Polynesian and American ethnology. Starting in the late s, Hale began to work with various chiefs of the Six Nations, furthering his interest in the League of the Six Nations Nock, , p. He prolifically reengaged with anthropological research in the s. From the late s he was absorbed into the Canadian scientific community, maintaining his avid interest in Iroquois studies.

During his life Hale published over forty articles and books Nock, , p. In , he began again his publications in his fields of philology and ethnology. Hale assumed prominent leadership roles in various learned societies.

He became a member of the American Philosophical Society , president of the American Folklore Society , a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada , vice president of Section H Anthropology of the American Association for the Advancement of Science , and a member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science and secretary and later research director of its committee established to investigate the Indians of the Canadian Northwest Nock, , p.

In terms of his theoretical contributions, Hale rejected ethnocentric prejudice, and developed principles of cultural relativism at a time when virtually everyone in the US was pursuing scientific racism. Young Men's Society and Reading Rooms.

Public Anthropology and Its Consequences

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