How to make the radio broadcast knock-out four-tube Roberts receiver
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In , Edwin Howard Armstrong realized that, by using a feedback circuit to repeatedly pass a signal through a triode, the amplification hence the sensitivity of a receiver could be increased a thousandfold. Not only that, but at its highest amplification the tube ceased to be a receiving device and became a generator of radio waves. An all-electronic system was at last feasible. By the early s, after further refinements of transmitters, tuners, amplifiers, and other components, the medium was ready for takeoff. Broadcasting, rather than point-to-point communication, was clearly the future, and the term "wireless" had given way to "radio," suggesting omnidirectional radiation.
In the business world, no one saw the possibilities more clearly than David Sarnoff, who started out as a telegrapher in Marconi's company. As early as he wrote a visionary memo proposing the creation of a small, cheap, easily tuned receiver that would make radio a "household utility," with each station transmitting news, lectures, concerts, and baseball games to hundreds of thousands of people simultaneously. World War I delayed matters, but in Sarnoff demonstrated the market's potential by broadcasting a championship boxing match between heavyweights Jack Dempsey and Georges Carpentier of France.
Since radios weren't yet common, receivers in theaters and in New York's Times Square carried the fight—a Dempsey knockout that thrilled the , gathered listeners. By RCA and other American companies were producing half a million radios a year. Advertising quickly became the main source of profits, and stations were aggregated into national networks—NBC in , CBS in At the same time, the U. Elsewhere, some governments chose to go into the broadcasting business themselves, but the American approach was inarguably dynamic.
Four out of five U. Favorite network shows such as The Jack Benny Program drew audiences in the millions and were avidly discussed the next day. During the Depression and the years of war that followed, President Franklin D. Roosevelt regularly spoke to the country by radio, as did other national leaders. Unless the infrared detector of one robot sees the sensor of another robot, the arm circuitry will be switched off until the robots are once again facing each other.
The proximity sensing system prevents the operators from punching at the opponent's side or rear which is not allowed in this simulatory exercise or in the actual sport of boxing. In another embodiment of the invention control of the robot is accomplished by a radio frequency type transmitter and receiver which allows a person to control the robot from a remote distance. Referring now to FIGS.
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The major components of the boxing robot will be described first followed by a detailed description of the components and their operation. The boxing robot machine has a motorized base 31 with an upper robotic torso frame 61 having a pair of anthropomorphic-like shoulder assemblies 60 movably mounted at each side of the upper torso area and a head member 37 pivotally mounted at the top end thereof.
Each shoulder assembly 60 has an upper arm 20 and forearm portion 10 with a padded glove 18 at the end of the forearm. The arm and shoulders are articulated and driven by pneumatic operators to simulate punching and blocking movements. A pair of independently controlled hydraulic motors drive a rotatable wheel mechanism mounted in the base which allow the robot to move sideways, as well as forward, backward, turns, and spins.
A person enters the robot structure through a door 62 and sits on a seat 63 inside the upper torso and operates joysticks 44 and foot pedal switches 89 and to control the operation of the robot. A fiberglass body shell 23 encapsulates the entire lower proximity of the operator and all drive system structures.
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A grating 32 on the upper torso 32 having openings 32A protects the operator and allows an adequate view. While grating 32 is depicted as being constructed out of welded tubes, better visibility may be provided by using a high strength, bullet-proof clear plastic glazing. To provide the necessary cushioning upon the robots colliding with each other during a boxing match, a bumper 22 is secured around the periphery of the lower area of the robot.
A scoreboard 17 located at the front of the shell 23 is used in tallying the score and an infrared module 47 is used in proximity control during a boxing match. The robot thus has an anthropomorphic look and persons operating the robots will be able to simulate to a greater degree the realism of actually, physically participating in a real boxing match as they look upon an opponent's robot.
Referring additionally to FIG. All of the control mechanisms of the robot are within easy reach and the robot is sized such that persons large and small will be able to operate it easily. A front frame braced by diagonal supports located on top of a bumper frame provides sufficient structural strength and rigidity to provide the operator with a safe environment against the opponent's punches, and colliding efforts during a boxing match.
The structure will generally be constructed of steel tubes welded together providing ease of assembly, light weight, and good durability. A pair of hydraulically driven, independently operated wheel groups are disposed at the lateral sides, and generally to the front of the base A drive wheel having a chain sprocket is rotatably mounted on the wheel frame A hydraulic motor is secured to the wheel frame and has a drive sprocket connected to the wheel sprocket by a roller chain to rotate the wheel and provide propulsion for the robot.
To properly support the rear or back side of the robot, a pair of swivel casters are disposed at both rear corners of the frame to provide a level, balanced, rolling support. A hydraulic fluid reservoir connected by conduit to a pump P driven by a motor M is housed within the robot frame to supply pressurized fluid to each wheel group. A hydraulic control valve operated by a joystick 44 is connected to the pump P through supply conduit and to the hydraulic wheel motor through conduits and Upon pushing the joystick 44 forward, pressurized hydraulic fluid flows through supply conduit into the control valve thru inlet conduit causing the wheel motor to run clockwise.
Upon pulling the joystick 44 in the the opposite direction, pressurized hydraulic fluid flows thru inlet conduit resulting in the wheel motor running in a counterclockwise direction. In the preferred embodiment the sprocket ratios are 2 to 1, and the wheel motor is of the low speed, high torque output variety.
Pressing the foot valve causes pressurized hydraulic fluid from supply line to flow thru inlet conduit to the actuator causing the wheel frame to rotate. Since each hydraulic wheel motor is independently controlled by the control valves , directional movements of the robot are many. Forward and rearward motions are accomplished by pushing both joysticks 44 forward for moving forward, alternatively pulling both joysticks 44 rearward causes the robot to go backwards. Turns and spinning motions are brought about by pushing one joystick forward while pulling the other joystick rearward, thus causing each wheel to rotate in an opposite direction thereby initiating a hard turn, or a spin if the joysticks are held in an opposite condition for a long enough time.
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For the purpose of simulating the mobility of an actual boxer, the robotic boxer should have an added degree of mobility, especially in terms of moving side to side. By pressing the foot valve , pressurized hydraulic fluid from the supply conduit flows thru the inlet conduit to the rotary actuator causing it to rotate about a vertical axis in a counterclockwise manner as viewed from above in FIGS.
Therefore after the wheel group rotation, side to side motion can now be activated as seen in FIG. By pushing both joysticks 44 forward, both wheels will rotate in the same direction i. When the foot valve is released pressurized fluid flows thru inlet conduit to the rotary actuator and the entire drive wheel assembly returns to the standard forward and rearward position as seen in FIG. The hydraulic system flows the return or low pressure fluid back to the reservoir through the return conduit and completes the cycle by flowing through conduit to pump P.
Each shoulder assembly comprises a generally triangular shoulder member 60 having a rectangular upper arm member 20 connected at its upper end to the shoulder member 60 and a rectangular forearm member 10 is pivotally connected at the lower end of the upper arm 20 by a pivot pin 15 to form an elbow. One end of the forearm member 10 extends a short distance beyond the pivotal connection and is provided with a clevis A simulated boxing glove 18 is secured to the outer end of the forearm member The gloves 18 are formed of durable, high strength flexible plastic material to give a cushioning effect.
An pneumatic elbow actuator 50 is pivotally connected at one end by a pivot mount 55 to the shoulder member The pivot mount 55 comprises a rotating bushing 64 received an aperture 56 on the shoulder member A collar 45 at the opposed end of the actuator 50 is connected to one end of a link 40 and the other end of the link is pivotally connected to the forearm clevis 35 by pivot pin The members 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 form an elbow link assembly A pneumatic dual arm actuator 57 is pivotally connected by a pivot mount 66 at one end to the interior of the shoulder member 60 by pivot pin 58 secured in a pin bore A clevis 28 at the end of the actuator rod is pivotally pinned to the lower end of a rectangular crank arm 27 by pivot pin A shoulder pivot shaft 25 extends outwardly from the upper end of the crank arm 27 and is rotatably received through an aperture 26 in the shoulder member The upper end of the upper arm member 20 is secured onto the outwardly extending end of the shaft 25 to rotate relative to the shoulder member Actuator 57 delivers rotational force through the crank arm 27 to the upper arm Referring now FIGS.
A shoulder pivot arm 80 extends outwardly from the shoulder member A pneumatic shoulder actuator 95 is pivotally pinned at one end by pivot pin to an actuator mount secured to the frame The outer end of rod of the actuator 95 has a clevis 85 pivotally connected to the shoulder pivot arm 80 by pivot pin Each actuator 57, 95, and 50 is powered by compressed air delivered by an air compressor C driven by a motor M located in the torso.
An air reservoir 49 stores this compressed air to be distributed through a supply hose 51 and enters the inlet side of each actuator as determined by a series of solenoid valves. An arm solenoid valve 53 is controls the dual arm actuator 57 through conduits 54 and 54A, a shoulder solenoid valve 92 controls the shoulder actuator 95 through conduits 93 and 93A, and an elbow solenoid valve 39 controls the elbow actuator 50 through conduit The arm solenoid valve 53 is connected by lead 52 to a source of D.
Each joystick 44 is provided with a pair of pushbuttons 42 and Pushbutton 43 is the punching button and is connected to the logic module 46 to control operation of arm solenoid 53 and dual arm actuator 57, as described hereinafter. Pushbutton 42 is the blocking button and is connected to the elbow solenoid valve 39 to control operation of the elbow actuator The following is a description of the sequence of operation to allow the robot to throw a punch.
The operator, upon pressing the punch button 43 located on one of the joysticks 44, will activate the logic module Since only one arm at a time can deliver a punch, the logic module 46 determines which arm right or left has priority to be activated in case the person presses both punch buttons 43 simultaneously.
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Electrical current is sent thru lead 52 to the infrared module 47 which in turn activates the infrared source 47A to emit an infrared beam projected straight out from the robot's frontal area. When two robots in a match are facing each other, or are adjacent at a position whereby the infrared beam projected from one robot aligns with the infrared detector 47B of a second robot, the infrared module 47 of the second robot is activated to signal a positive condition allowing it to throw a punch.
Similarly, the first robot will function in a like manner when infrared beam detection is acknowledged. The infrared system is used to negate any attempt of persons operating the robots to try to punch an opponent's robot from the side area or rear area, since infrared beam detection is only possible from the frontal areas of the robots.
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Refering again to FIGS. Thus, a timed electrical current travels through lead 52 to the arm solenoid valve 53 actuating it to allow high pressure air to flow through conduit 54 to the dual arm actuator 57 causing it to extend quickly thereby imposing a rotary torque on the shoulder shaft Simultaneously, low pressure air will flow through conduit 54A back to valve 53 to be vented to the atmosphere. As shown in FIG. In other words, forearm 10 will rotate about upper arm 20 thru pivot assembly 15 in a counterclockwise motion. Upon releasing the punch button 43, arm solenoid valve 53 switches back to standby, and high pressure air flows through the conduit 54A to contract the dual arm actuator 57 and rotate the arm assembly back to its neutral position FIG.
In the blocking of an opponent's punch, as is common in the sport of boxing, the forearm of a boxer must be positioned generally in an upward or vertical position. This action will help assure that an opponent's punches will not land upon ones head or facial areas during the boxing match. As best seen in FIGS.