The Sociology of Language and Religion: Change, Conflict and Accommodation

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online The Sociology of Language and Religion: Change, Conflict and Accommodation file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with The Sociology of Language and Religion: Change, Conflict and Accommodation book. Happy reading The Sociology of Language and Religion: Change, Conflict and Accommodation Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF The Sociology of Language and Religion: Change, Conflict and Accommodation at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF The Sociology of Language and Religion: Change, Conflict and Accommodation Pocket Guide.

It has often been observed in the sociological literature that the sect is a lower-class protest phenomenon. The conditions of life of different social strata influence the psychological make-up and need dispositions of their members. Consequently, social classes and strata develop different religious needs and sensibilities. Niebuhr stated that the religion of the disinherited may be observed in the rise of many sects and that Christianity was at first the religion of those who had little stake in the civilization of their time. Troeltsch concluded that all really creative religious movements are the work of lower strata.

Niebuhr stressed the importance of economic success in the transformation of protesting sects into denominations and pointed to the fact that the churches of the poor sooner or later become churches of the middle class.

Social Processes: The Meaning, Types, Characteristics of Social Processes

The sect exhibits complex functions in society. It often offers an outlet for strains and frustrations incumbent upon lower-class status and for the condition of being socially and economically disinherited.

The Relationship Between Language and Society - Linguistics

In allowing catharsis, it at the same time provides a meaningful community, together with a set of values that promotes a personal reorganization of the members. Not only may the sect reconcile the disinherited to their situation through the various compensations of this-worldly community and other-worldly expectations, but it may also bring new meaning to them in its reinterpretation of their life experience.

In doing this it may socialize its members in virtues which lead to economic and worldly success. Moreover, the sect, with its close community of human beings and its new values which give meaning to life, offers a way out of anomie to many who have been disorganized in the impersonal milieu of the modern city. When the founding generation passes away, the established sect continues to perform similar functions for individuals who are attracted to it and provides for its born members the setting for acting out their established values.

Sects may take on a number of new functions when their social composition and their specific social situation change over time.

In This Article

When established organizational conditions offer insufficient expression to the religious needs of people or when established institutions fail to meet needs of particular strata and groups at all, it is easy for charismatic leaders to arise and organize a following. Such developments issue in movements of protest of a marked sectarian character. The charismatic leader as a rallying focus and an active initiator plays a strategic role in the origin of sects and often impresses his own self-interpretation upon the group as the model for its behavior and beliefs.


  • Change, Conflict and Accommodation?
  • Mrs. Engels: A Novel.
  • 15.1. The Sociological Approach to Religion.
  • Rutgers SAS Navigation.
  • The Sociology of Language and Religion | SpringerLink.
  • Azzan Yadin-Israel - Professor Jewish Studies Rutgers;
  • Tope Omoniyi - Research outputs › Research Explorer?

The accommodation and routinization of churches and the development of sects into denominations is often the occasion for schism, which is an important source of sectarian movements. Moreover, conditions and social change within the general society, altered economic status for particular groups, urbanization, increased mobility— geographic and psychological—and other phenomena associated with industrialization all contribute to the rise of sects.

The sect as a sociological ideal type is therefore to be understood as the embodiment and expression of rejection of some significant aspect of secular life.

It represents a protest against compromise with the society and its values and the institutional development of the church itself as an aspect of this accommodation. It is charismatic, lay, egalitarian, and voluntaristic religion in contrast to the established, professional, hierarchical, and ascribed religion of the church. In this typology the sect represents an ideal type: empirical reality and specific historical development present a greater variety than does the typology itself. Many protest movements display sectarian characteristics but to different degrees and often in somewhat different respects.

Most of the important protest movements in Christianity, while highly influenced by sectlike elements, endeavored to achieve organizational forms which also involved many of the characteristics of the church. Thus the Reformed churches of the Protestant Reformation vary along a complex continuum from Anglicanism with its episcopate and quite ecclesiastical structure, at one end, to the sectlike organizations of the Baptists, at the other, with interesting combinations of church and sect attributes characterizing the in-between groups, for example, the Churches of the Standing Order in colonial Massachusetts.

Joachim Wach has called a number of them independent groups and has pointed out that they vary in form from churchlike hierarchical structures to egalitarian covenants of laymen. However, not all protest is secessionist in intention, nor does protest necessarily issue in separate organization outside the established bodies. Monasticism and the later religious orders offer an outstanding example of protest groups which remain within the older ecclesiastical body.

Monasticism exhibits a number of sectarian qualities: it establishes a separate community, practices austerity and asceticism, and employs segregating rules and peculiarities of dress. Like the geographically isolated sects, it creates its own distinct community but remains dependent upon the larger body for replacement of personnel. In its origin Christian monasticism was both a protest against the accommodation of the church and a rejection of the world.

Its relationship to the sacramental church was ambiguous, and it could have become a secessionist movement. But in the rule of Basil in the East and of Benedict in the West, it was reintegrated formally and solidly into the structure of the church. Here it continued to play a role of witness and to advocate reform. Moreover, it placed its enormous energy at the disposal of the church for missionary and other activity. In the High Middle Ages, the Franciscan movement represented a similar tendency. It was contained within the church at first by the personal character of its founder.

Later on, its integration into the church was the cause of a great struggle in which both schism and heresy as well as reintegration of the order into the church resulted. Moreover, the routinization process from sect to denomination is also found in the history of religious orders.

Trích dẫn trùng lặp

Such routinization is often the cause of schism and divisions and the rise of reforming leaders of the charismatic type. The Mormons.


  • The Sociology of Language and Religion!
  • Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages.
  • Account Options.
  • King's College London - 4AAT Introduction to the Sociology of Religion.

A religious body of a marked sectlike character which seeks geographical isolation may, when circumstances are propitious, develop into an entity resembling an ethnic group or even a nation. The Mormons, a sectlike group choosing to imitate the Biblical model of Israel, found themselves in circumstances where such recapitulation took on realistic significance. Persecuted and driven from their settlements, achieving victories and suffering defeats, the Mormons built up in a decade and a half a folk tradition and mentality of their own. In moving to the West they found a vast unoccupied expanse of land upon which they could expand their vision of an earthly kingdom of God to imperial dimensions.

As a result the semiecclesiastical organization which developed was at the same time the organized core of a Mormon people held together by kinship ties, common beliefs and values, a common history of achievement and suffering, and a common homeland. Churches have also become the core of ethnic groups, as under the Turkish millet system in the Middle East , which granted a degree of political autonomy to religious communities. Wilson has shown that it is possible to distinguish types of sects on the basis of their ideological orientations.

He distinguishes first the conversionist sect , which seeks to convert others and thereby to change the world; second, the adventist sect , which expects drastic divine intervention and awaits a new dispensation; third, the introversionist sect , which is pietistic in its orientation, withdrawing from the world to cultivate its inner spirituality; and the gnostic sect , which offers some special esoteric religious knowledge. Such sects will experience the effects of routinization differently and will also exhibit different structural tendencies to some degree Wilson ; Moreover, since the terms church and sect are ideal-typical constructions, what is observed in real life situations only approximates the specifications of the theoretical definitions.

Such ideal-typical concepts have an analogical character and are most useful for observation, analysis, and interpretation when utilized with flexibility. This analogical character of the Troeltschian concepts is best seen in the behavior of churches when placed in circumstances which elicit sectlike behavior from them. The Roman Catholic church in the United States in the nineteenth century found itself a minority religion, largely lower class in character, constituted in its vast majority by ethnic groups of recent immigrant origin, and therefore of lower prestige in the general American society.

Moreover, the value system of American society was largely derived from Protestantism, and the various forms of Protestantism constituted something like an unofficially established national religion. The Roman Catholic church responded by separating itself from the surrounding Protestant world in a wide range of activities and by constructing its own institutional contexts for education from the primary grades through the university, for social welfare work, for hospitals and other institutions for aid, and for sports and entertainment. Moreover, the mentality of American Catholics took on a number of sectlike attributes, such as apartness and defensiveness, rigorism in morality, and militancy in religious identification.

While this situation was in part conditioned by the defensive character of post-Tridentine Catholicism in Europe and by the Irish background of so many American Catholics, there is no question of the importance of American conditions in bringing about a sectlike result. What has evolved from the time of Troeltsch is a typology of religious groups which has proven its utility in description and analysis in the sociological study of religion.

It may be summarized briefly as follows: The church is the embodiment of institutional religion and accommodation to the world. It gives rise to protest groups and movements.

The Sociology of Language and Religion: Change, Conflict and Accommodation

These may vary from reformed churches to independent groups to sects , or they may give rise to groups which remain within the older body, affecting and reforming it in various ways. The history of the concept of culture; cultural pluralism in advanced industrialized societies; the differentiation of cultural institutions; cultural policy and social structure; culture as a property of social groups; conflict and accommodation over efforts to change and sustain traditional culture.

An examination of theories accounting for the causes and consequences of social movements, including a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of such theories for understanding historically specific revolutions, rebellions, and violent and nonviolent forms of protest in various parts of the world. An examination of the history and performance of key economic, political, and social institutions and policies in the United States and other nations. Special attention to similarities and differences across countries, and to strategies of comparative analysis.

This course discusses the relationship between state and society in a comparative perspective. The focus is on the interaction among states, domestic economic elites, and external economic and political processes in the determination of different developmental paths. Analytically, it includes topics such as characteristics and functions of the state in different types of society throughout history with an emphasis on the varieties of capitalist and socialist state , the autonomy of the state and its causes in different settings, and developmental and predatory consequences of state activity.

Readings will include both theoretical and empirical materials, the latter dealing mostly with nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe and twentieth-century Latin America. Ethnographic recording of field data in written and audiovisual formats, including film, video, and CD-ROM applications. Critical assessment of ethnographies and audiovisual data in terms of styles, format, and approaches. Graduate students are required to submit a fifteen-page mid-term paper comparing a written and an audiovisual ethnography and a final video ethnography with a project abstract.

This course is a discussion of recent topics in sociological theory, usually focusing on a single approach, like postcolonialism, feminism, or Western Marxism. May be repeated as the topics change. The social construction of knowledge and the social institutions in which these processes take place are examined. Topics include relationships between knowledge and social institutions, foundations of knowledge in society, knowledge and social interactions, and contrasting folk and specialized theories.

This course focuses on some classic methodological and theoretical resources upon which the sociology of science, technology, and medicine all draw. It gives special attention to relationships between knowledge and social order, and between knowledge and practice, that are common to science, technology, and medicine.

An introduction to some enduring topics in the sociology of scientific knowledge and to some resources for addressing them. Attention is drawn to problems of accounting for scientific order and change, and to recurrent debates over the proper method for sociological accounts of science. Prerequisites: graduate standing. An examination of the sociological literature on social control, looking at theoretical developments over time and examining the contemporary literature dealing with social control in historical and comparative perspective.

Analysis of enduring topics in the study of race and ethnicity, including stratification, discrimination conflict, immigration, assimilation, and politics. Other topics include racial and ethnic identity and the social construction of race and ethnic categories. This course studies social constructions of gender within economic opportunities and constraints. We read classical sociological theory on this topic; feminist critiques; and newer research on careers, organizations, and markets.

Surveys major theories of the development and functioning of the welfare state, addressing the roles of economic development, political institutions, stratification, and culture. The course focuses on the development of the US social provision in comparison with other advanced industrial societies. An examination of changing Western responses from the age of Bedlam to the age of Prozac.